Linux programming VIVA QUESTIONS3

41. What is difference b/w Hardlink & Softlink?
* Hard link is direct pointer to a file, but Soft link
is indirect pointer to a file.
42. List Directory handling system calls?
* opendir,readdir,closedir,rewinddir,seekdir,telldir.
43. What is Filelocking & Recordlocking?
* File locking locks on entire file where record locking allows a processeer to lock a specified portion of a file.
44. List types of locking?
* Advisory locking & Mandatory locking.
45. What is process image?
* It contains user program, user data,stack,PCB.
46. Define PCB?
* Process control block is used to control process states.
47. Define process attributes?
* Process has a series of characteristics which are called as a process attributes.
48. List process states?
* Ready, Execution, Suspend, Stopped, Zombie.
49. Define Zombie process?
* The child process terminates while before the parent dies.
50. Define Orphan process?
* The parent process wants to terminate before the child process.
51. List process management functions?
* fork,vfork,exit,wait,waitpid,exec family ,system.
52. What is vfork?
* It is a virtual fork.
53. Define Signal?
* Signal is a software interrupt.
54. Define Reliable signal?
* Signal is generated by process when event occurs that causes the signal occurs.
55. Define Unreliable signal?
* Signals that cannot be identified.
56. What is IPC?
* Inter process communication describes different ways of msg passing b/w different processes that are running on some o/s.
57. List methods of IPC?
* Pipes, FIFO’s, Msgqueues, Semaphores,Shared m/y.
58. List types of pipes?
* Unidirectional & Bidirectional pipes.
59. What is Unidirectional pipe?
* Single directional flow of data.
60. What is Bidirectional pipe?
* Bi directional flow of data.

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